CLOUDS OF REASON



THIS IS A THOUGHT CHART; IN THE CONTEXT OF A RESEARCH PROJECT AT THE ROYAL ACADAMY OF ANTWERP. THE FOCUS OF THE RESEARCH IS ON GENERATIVE WAYS OF PRODUCING (PHOTOGRAPHIC) IMAGES WITH (A)BIOTIC MATTERS.

If you want to get in touch about some content you think my eyes, fingers, ears, mouth and mind would like to digest, please do.



The Voice of the Ancient Bard

Youth of delight, come hither
And see the opening morn,
Image of thruth new born
Doubt is fled & clouds of reason,
Dark disputes & artful teazing.
Folly is an endless maze,
Tangled roots perplex her ways.
How many have fallen there!
And feel they know what but care;
And wish to lead others when they shoud be led.

- William Blake



ARTISTIC PRACTICE COLLECTION


In 1855 German chemist Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge self-published Der Bildungstrieb der Stoffe, veranschaulicht in selbstständig gewachsenen Bilder, illustrating images produced when placed drops of reactant solutions on blotting paper and then added a drop of a second reactant solution on top of the first drop. The solutions would react as they spread through the blotting paper, often producing colored patterns. The work included 60 chromatograms mounted on 31 leaves, along with separately printed caption paragraphs which were also pasted onto the leaves of the album.

HOW
MATTER
COMES
TO

MATTER


Blue Waters, Dries Segers, 2018, 248x150cm, Cyanotype on cotton.


Susan Walsh, Wind Drawings,
Beacon, NY #14,
Charcoal powder, wind, 2018, Arches paper, 22x30”


Sanne Vaassen, After Landscape, alcohol, metal, plastic bottles, 220x80x80cm, 202


Dries Segers, Kirlian Leaf, 2022, unfinshed project

Kirlian photography is a way to create images of coronal discharges around an object. A coronal discharge is an electrical discharge caused by the ionization of gas or fluid surrounding an object. This technique is also used in paranoramal science.


Markus Krottendorfer, Untitled; of the series Phantom of the Poles, 2022, 30x40cm, Framed C-print


Lucy Raven, Untitled, 2021, Shadowgram; Silver gelatin contact print

They document the shockwaves of exploded raw materials on large format photosensitive paper and negative film. To achieve this, Raven built a room-sized black box that acted as a camera inside the ballistic sciences lab of the New Mexico Tech University. In it she fashioned a lighting mechanism that triggers a stroboscopic flash timed to the exact moment of detonation, precisely capturing the exploded materials as they travel at mach speed (a unit indicating the speed of sound, named after the Austrian physicist Ernst Mach (1838-1916)). The resulting images bear a faint resemblance to the first visualisation of the shockwaves of a bullet, recorded in 1887 by Mach. But rather than pointing to the trajectory of a single bullet, Raven unleashes an array of different materials, each generating a series of interacting shocks and turbulent wakes.


Karel Doing, The Mulch Spider's Dream, 16m, 14 minutes, colour, 2018

By using plants, mud and salt in conjunction with alternative photochemistry, images are 'grown' on motion picture film. What at first glance is perceived as abstract turns out to be a concrete precipitation from phenomena that surround us in everyday life. The 'aliveness' of the images is underlined by Andrea Szigetvári's evocative sound-design.


Babs Decruyenaere, Random connection #6: Emotional remnant, 2017, 50x65 cm, gelatin silver print

Decruyenaere saved tears and dried them for eternity on a glass slide, later she made some contactprints. out of it. “It was trial and error: sometimes the tear crystallised really beautifully and sometimes not at all. It wasn’t clear to me which factors were responsible for the way the tear would crystallise, but that didn’t concern me. Because of the quick drying and eventual evaporation of the tear, the trick was to develop the image quickly during the brief moment that the crystallisation was at its most beautiful.”


Lucas Leffler, Zilverbeek 06, 2019,
Analog print made with a mixture of mud, 70x100 cm

These photographs were made with mud from a creek behind an old photography factory. Leffler’s investigation into the historical and environmental effects of silver externalised in creating sculptural photographs that pay homage to the process as well as to the land.

Arja Hop & Peter Svenson, Florachromes, 2015, analogue C-print

Within a certain geographical area, Hop & Svenson take samples of the plants growing there. They then extract juices from these using traditional methods. The duo developed their own method to convert the plant residues directly into analogue photographic prints. Each residue results in a unique layered colour tone. By presenting these photographic colour patches in a tight matrix, Hop and Svenson generate, as it were, a sample map of a specific environment with various gradations of tones from the colour spectrum. Each photo tells the bio-chromatic story of a specific plant and place; it seems that the intensity of the plant colour is strongly influenced by the living conditions of the plant.


Oliver Raymond-Barker, Anatomy of Stone, 30x40cm, chemigram, 2019

ARTISTIC PRACTICE COLLECTION

Stenciled handprints and wall paintings dating back 10,000 years, some of the earliest forms of cave art.

Cueva de las Manos is named for the hundreds of paintings of hands stenciled, in multiple collages, on the rock walls. The art was created in several waves between 7,300 BC and 700 AD, during the Archaic period of pre-Columbian South America. The age of the paintings was calculated from the remains of bone pipes used for spraying the paint on the wall of the cave to create the artwork, radiocarbon dating of the artwork, and stratigraphic dating.


Full-length photograph of the Shroud of Turin which is said to have been the cloth placed on Jesus at the time of his burial. 


Sit with the Contradiction: Fuck Trump!, Risk Hazekamp, Organic photographic print with emulsion made from homegrown and nurtured cyanobacteria



Susanne Kriemann, Falsche Kamille, Wilde Möhre, Bitterkraut, 2016, photogram and silkscreen with plants and clay dust on handmade paper, framed, 180 x 220 cm, unique

Kriemann identified and harvested the three weeds most capable of extracting and storing their environmental pollutants. The substantial traces of metals found in the plants — lanthanum, gadolinium, germanium, uranium, mercury, lead, nickel, zinc, aluminium, copper and others — are also important raw materials in the manufacture of smart phones: photosynthesis, in these plants, fixes the same chemicals that are now used by millions of us to fix light as photographic images.



About Etienne-Jules Marey: Towards the end of his life he returned to studying the movement of quite abstract forms. His last great work was the observation and photography of smoke trails. (This research was partially funded by Samuel Pierpont Langley under the auspices of the Smithsonian Institution, after the two met in Paris at the Exposition Universelle, 1900.) In 1901 he was able to build a smoke machine with 58 smoke trails. It became one of the first aerodynamic wind tunnels.

Anna Atkins, Furcellaria fastigiata,
“Photographs of British Algae,” 1846 or later, The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations


James Welling, Chemical, 2015, Black and white chemigram on Kodak Metallic Endura paper, 50.8 x 40.6 cm

Jos Coenen, Fumarol reactions on copper plates, (no size indication)

Fumaroles, openings from which hot sulfur vapors, among other things, escaped, formed on the surface of the red terril. Coenen laid copper plates on or under the fumaroles. After a few weeks, the salt and sulfur deposits that found their way out from the hot and smoking belly of the slag heap formed surprising images on the metal support. No more carbon black and ash gray, but a radiant color palette.


Liesbet Grupping, Drawings of the wind, 2015

This photographic image is generated through a black bag featuring a hole as well as a 4 x 5 inch slide – as a mobile camera obscura if it were. This black bag is lifted up by the wind which triggers the making of the image.
The drawings are made by inversing the conventional way of drawing: instead of pressing the pencil on the paper, the wind lets the paper move underneath the pencil point.


herman de vries, From earth: worldwide, 2018, Earth rubbings on paper, 103 x 144cm


Charles Darwin, Fig 45. The Power of movement in Plants, 1880

Cycas pectinata: circumnutation of young leaf whilst emerging from the ground, feebly illuminated from above, traced on vertical glass, from 5 P.M. May 28th to 11 A.M. 31st 1880. Movement magnified 7 times, here reduced to two-thirds of original scale.

Charlotte Greenwood, Warming, 2020

A series of ice photograms that offer viewers a closer look at a geographically distant effect of climate change: the melting polar ice caps.

Henry Fox Talbot, Photogenic Drawing, 1840


Yto Barrada, Velvet collage #4, 2019, fabric mounted on board, 91.4 cm × 67.3 cm

These samplers describe the botanical, insect, or mineral sources of various colors with a special interest in the history of this lost science and art. Barrada is currently building a botanic forest garden and color research center in Tangier that connects her research into natural dyes to her practice of interventions in the city.



ARTISTIC PRACTICE COLLECTION

Daisuke Yokota, Untitled, 2015, 90×72 cm, Archival Pigment Print

“A photograph without the intervention of human perception is just a material, but when a human being sees it and thinks about it at a certain time and place, the photograph becomes an interesting phenomenon. To think about photography is to think about the human being him- or herself.”

- Daisuke Yokota


Tomás Saraceno, Hybrid Webs, seen in Palais de Tokyo, 2017

Ask your hands to know the things they hold


- Kae Tempest


Raphael Hefti, Lycopodium, 2014, 700 x 390 cm, Photogram on color photopaper using the gently burning spores of Lycopodium moss.


Coëxitence, Stephen Gill, 2012, Aperture

Stephen Gill was commissioned to make a photographic response to the postindustrial town of Dudelange, Luxembourg, once a center of European steel manufacturing. For this project he focused on a heavily polluted pond that had been used to cool the steel mill's furnaces, drawing visual parallels between the microscopic life in the water and the human life in the nearby town. Gill visited the University of Luxembourg, where he made use of a medical microscope to examine single drops of water to better understand the existence teeming below the pond’s murky surface. His images reveal a minuscule ecosystem —diatoms and other creatures—a sign that the abused pond may be coming back to life.


These unique negatives from the Best Before End by Stephen Gill series were part processed in energy drinks, then left to dry over a three-year period and were then incapsulated in resin blocks.


Pierre Cordier, Chimigramme 1971, Chemigram on photographic paper, 59,5 x 49,3 cm

A chemigram is the result of an experimental process where an image is made by painting with chemicals on light-sensitive paper.
The term chemigram was coined in the 1950s by Belgian artist Pierre Cordier.


Tomás Saraceno, Printed Matter(s), 2018

Printed Matter(s) is a series of photo giclée prints made with an ink of black carbon PM2.5 pollution sequestered from the air in Mumbai, printed on eight-gram handmade paper. These prints reproduce images of cosmic dust from a 1982 special issue of the NASA Cosmic Dust Catalog, entangling the celestial and the terrestrial, the cosmic and the atmospheric. An approximated 40,000 tons of interplanetary dust falls to the surface of Earth every year; a speck of cosmic material touches every person every day everywhere around the world. In these prints, the material with which the air has been poisoned becomes a tool for the air to communicate, reminding us of its ever-present agency even in the face of efforts to destroy it.



Kristof Vrancken, Hunger of the Pine I, Anthotype on paperroll, 2021

Hiroshi Sugimoto, Lightning Field series, 2009 - ...

In 2008, acclaimed japanese photographer Hiroshi Sugimoto bypassed the use of his camera and exposed his Lightning Field series directly onto film.  In order to witness what early scientists like Benjamin Franklin saw upon the discovery of electricity, Sugimoto used a Van de Graaf generator to send up to 400,000 volts through film to a metal table.

‘The resulting fractal branching, subtle feathering, and furry whorls call to mind vascular systems, geologic features, and trees. “I see the spark of life itself, the lightning that struck the primordial ooze,” Sugimoto says. Although some of the effects happen by chance, the artist does try to exercise control. “I have a kitchen’s worth of utensils that produce sparks with different characteristics,” he says. “But there are many variables — weather, humidity, perhaps even what I had for breakfast — I’m never sure what influences the results.”
- Jon J. Eilenberg,
Wired Magazine, 2009


Nicolai Howalt, Light Breaks, 2015, 25 x 25 cm (each print) 

Light Break takes, as its point of departure, the historical practice of medical phototherapy, which doctor and Nobel laureate Niels Ryberg Finsen (1860-1904) developed and practiced in Denmark at the end of the nineteenth century.
Howalt investigates and visualizes visible and invisible areas of the light spectrum, and the power of the life-giving as well as destructive radiation of sunlight.


Risk Hazekamp, unlearing photography, 2021-22

Photograph created by Cyanobacteria interacting with analogue photographic material, such as film negatives, photographic papers or glass film carriers.


READING LIST

Category:Chemistries

  • Mining Photography; The Ecological Footprint of Image Production, (ed.) Boaz Levin, Esther Ruelfs, Tulga Beyerle, 2022, Spector Books


  • Inadvertent Images : A History of Photographic ApparitionsPeter Geimer, 2018, University of Chicago Press


  • Revelations, Experiments in Photography, Ben Burbridge, 2015, MACK & Media Space



READING LIST

Category:Entaglements

  • Arts of Living on a Damaged Planet: Ghosts and Monsters of the Anthropocene, Anna Tsing, Heather Swanson, Elaine Gan & Nils Bubandt (ed.), 2017, University of Minnesota Press

  • The Mushroom at the End of the World; On the Possibility of Life in Capitalist Ruins, Anna Lowenhaupt Tsing, 2015, Princeton University Press

  • Down to Earth; Politics in the New Climatic Regime, Bruno Latour 2018, Polity Press

  • Meeting the Universe Halfway, Karen Barad, 2007, Duke University Press*

  • Earth and Reveries of Will: An Essay on the Imagination of Matter, Gaston Bachelard, 2002, Texas: Dallas Institute of Humanities and Culture Publications

  • Symbiotic Planet A New Look At Evolution, Lynn Margulis, 1999, Basic Books*




READING LIST

Category:Being Biotic

  • Cambio, FORMAFANTASMA, 2020, Serpentine Galleries and Koënig Books


  • On the Necessity of Gardening: An ABC of Art, Botany and Cultivation, Laurie Cluitmans, 2021, Valiz (in collaboration with Centraal Museum, Utrecht)

  • Graphology, 2012, 18.5 x 13.4 cm, 95p., Museum van Hedendaagse Kunst Antwerpen/The Drawing Room, London/MER. Paper Kunsthalle vzw, Ghent

  • Ways of Being; Beyond Human Intelligence, James Bridle, Penguin Books, 2022

READING LIST

Catagory:Attitudes







WORLDS WORLD WORLDS


A gas leak from Nord stream 2 is seen in the Swedish economic zone in the Baltic Sea in this picture taken from the Swedish Coast Guard aircraft on September 28, 2022. Swedish Coast Guard/Handout via TT News Agency/via REUTERS



“Life is not only about matter and how it immediately interacts with itself but also how matter interacts in interconnected systems that include organisms in their separately perceiving worlds – worlds that are necessarily incomplete, even for scientists and philosophers who, like there objects of study, form only a tiny part of the giant perhaps infinite universe they observe”

(Dorian Sagan, A Foray into the Worlds of Animals and Humans, with a Theory of Meaning, 1934)


A Little Girl Lost

Children of the future age,
Reading this indignant page,
Know that in a former time
Love, sweet love, was thought a crime.

In the age of gold,
Free from winter's cold,
Youth and maiden bright,
To the holy light,
Naked in the sunny beams delight.

Once a youthful pair,
Filled with softest care,
Met in garden bright
Where the holy light
Had just removed the curtains of the night.

Then, in rising day,
On the grass they play;
Parents were afar,
Strangers came not near,
And the maiden soon forgot her fear.

Tired with kisses sweet,
They agree to meet
When the silent sleep
Waves o'er heaven's deep,
And the weary tired wanderers weep.

To her father white
Came the maiden bright;
But his loving look,
Like the holy book
All her tender limbs with terror shook.

'Ona, pale and weak,
To thy father speak!
Oh the trembling fear!
Oh the dismal care
That shakes the blossoms of my hoary hair!'

- William Blake




New materialist scholars use ‘matter’ as their focal point and searchlight. Zooming in on the matter of ecology, economy, politics, technology and art, these scholars move away from a framework of representation.

IT
MATTERS
WHAT
WORLDS
WORLD
WORLDS


- Donna Harraway





Ernest Thompson Seton, “Code for Smoke Signals.” Illustration from Seton’s The Birch Bark Roll of Woodcraft: The Twentieth Edition of the Manual for Boys and Girls from 4 to 94 (New York: Brieger Press, 1925).


The 14th sign of the Apocalypse: earth and sky are consumed by fire. From Livre de la vigne nostre seigneur, 1450-1470



Derived from mater, the Latin word for mother, matter refers to the substance from which all things are made. In English, the word matter can also indicate importance or significance – something to be concerned about.



(from Greek βίος bios, "life" and κέντρον kentron, "center"), in a political and ecological sense, as well as literally, is an ethical point of view that extends inherent value to all living things. It is an understanding of how the earth works, particularly as it relates to its biosphere or biodiversity. Biocentric thought is nature-based, not human-based.


Even if 19th-century geologists had accepted an ancient Earth shaped by the same geological and meteorological processes that operate now, members of the public largely clung to a biblical interpretation of the planet's past. The "human fossil" advertised here hasn't survived in modern collections, but was probably a concretion. The admission price for this spectacle, £1, was no small chuck of change. Adjusted for inflation, it would equal roughly £100, or about $125, today.

WORLDS WORLD WORLDS

Why did the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima leave peoples shadows etched on sidewalks?



Hito Kage No Ishii, Nuclear shadow prints after the Hiroshima bombings. Photo: Universal History Archive / Getty Images

6 August 1945 is the day when an American B-29 bomber dropped the world's first atom bomb over the city of Hiroshima, Japan, during the ongoing World War II. The fireball (with a surface temperature of 5,000 degrees Celsius) ignited every flammable material for over 3.5 kilometers, creating a firestorm that lasted for six hours. To put things in perspective: of the 90,000 buildings in Hiroshima, only 28,000 remained; of the city's 200 doctors, only 20 were left alive or capable of working.

GLOBAL
FOREST
WATCH





FIRE
WEATHER
INDEX




Extreme heat wave sparks wildfires in parts of Europe, july 2022, © Damira Kalajzic




BIOTIC
+
ABIOTIC



abiotic/ˌeɪbʌɪˈɒtɪk/adjective

  • relating to things in the environment that are not living
  • physical rather than biological; not derived from living organisms."abiotic chemical reactions"
    • devoid of life; sterile.

#temperature #lightintensity #humidity #wind #sunlight #water #minerals #light #air #soil #climate #atmosphere #pH #salinity

biotic/bʌɪˈɒtɪk/adjective

    • involving, caused by, or relating to living things in the environment:
    • relating to or resulting from living organisms."biotic interactions"
    • living things

#bacteria #virus #animals #plats #fungus #animals #humans #archaea #protists



Gaston Bachelard uses water (as he does elsewhere with the other elements) as an endlessly generative image, as a way of gathering language around an image, and re-imagining the world. And, as in all his work, the tension between reverie and rationalism keeps the discourse alive. “Here…materialism, imagined through the material imagination, takes on a sensitivity so sharp, so painful, that it can understand all the woes of an idealistic poet.”

A couple in London, in 1952, wearing masks because of air pollution. Photograph: Juliette Lasserre/Getty

Police using flames at Marble Arch to direct the traffic in the 1952 London smog. Photograph: Trinity Mirror/Alamy

Sixty years ago, London, UK was hit by the Great Smog, a week-long pea-souper that brought the capital to a standstill and caused the deaths of at least 4,000 people. Pollution from fireplaces and factories combined with foggy weather to blanket the city in thick clouds, which seeped into homes, buildings, obscuring cinema screens and theatre stages. Many of the deaths were from respiratory disease caused or aggravated by toxic sulphur dioxide in the air.

What artists do is open different portals. Art shows us the ways in which material can be modelled, shifted, transformed.


- Otobong Nkanga



 "How do we actively engage with the lived experiences of forms of nonhuman bios whose existences are today increasingly incorporated in the cultural world of human techne? How do we acknowledge “their” agency, and our involvement with it, without denying the asymmetrical power historically developed by human agencies in bios? How do we engage with accountable forms of ethico-political caring that respond to alterity without nurturing purist separations between humans and nonhumans? How do we engage with the care of Earth and its beings without idealizing nature nor diminishing human response-ability by seeing it as either inevitably destructive or mere paternalistic stewardship?"

Matters of Care: Speculative Ethics in More than Human Worlds, María Puig de la Bellacasa, 2017, University of Minnesota Press, p.144
WORLDS WORLD WORLDS

In order to change ourselves, to take on different ways of thinking about the world, we need new ways of seeing it. We are accustomed, largely by scientific practice, to taking things apart, separating them into their component attributes, fixing them for study, piece by piece reducing their collective agency until they have none at all. But this is the opposite of ecology, which seeks to find connections between all things and resolve them into greater, inter connected systems. The lens required now is not a microscope, but a macroscope; a device for seeing at a fas vaster scale - both in space and time - than we are used to.

- James Bridle, Ways of Being: Beyond Human Intellegence, 2022, Penguin Books, p 125



Spending the War Without You,
Norton Lecture series with Laurie Anderson, 2021, Harvard University Department of Music

The River
The Forest
The Rocks
The Road
The City
The Birds


Argus Panoptes         (All-seeing; Ancient Greek: Ἄργος Πανόπτης)



The Pitch Drop Experiment

https://livestream.com/uq/events/5369913/videos/129913304





︎︎︎Vinciane Despret in conversation with Tomás Saraceno





Waterclock


Sand timer


Sun clock or Sundial


Candle Clock



“If material emerges from our apparatus, they would be closely paired in one-to-one relations: our apparatus, our material. We leave aside the material reacting across it’s varied components; we leave aside nonhuman relational apparatuses. Some of this problem is addressed in the scholarly turn to multiplicity, which shows us multiple knowledge apparatuses acting simultaneously. Yet as long as human knowledge apparatuses continue to make up the frame through which we know multiplicity, nonhuman makings never enter.”

Anne L. Tsing. When the Things We Study Respond to Each Other. Tools for Unpacking “the Material”, p. 016. In: André Jacque, Otero Verzier, Pietroiusti. More than Human. 2020.






Scenes of a trade charcoal burners. Woodcut, 1500/01. From Les Ordonnances de Paris. A charcoal burner's job was a humble one, but one that in pre industrial society was extremely important. For centuries many trades depended on charcoal as their main source of fuel. Iron working, blacksmithing, brick making, glass making, foundry work such as casting bells and cannons, gold and silversmithing, all used huge quantities of charcoal.

WORLDS WORLD WORLDS



Critical Zones, exibition at ZKM Karlsruhe, Germany, Online discussion on the Film »Storytelling for Earthly Survival« with Donna Haraway (biologist, philosopher, feminist), Bruno Latour and Peter Weibel



Material makes more than one language possible.


- Cildo Meireles














[Chorus 1]
We are the earth intruders
We are the earth intruders
Muddy with twigs and branches

[Pre-Chorus 1]
Turmoil
Carnage

[Chorus 2]
Here come the earth intruders
We are the paratroopers
Stampede of sharp shooters
Come straight from voodoo

[Verse 1]
With our feet thumping
With our feet marching
Grinding skeptics
Into the soil

[Pre-Chorus 2]
Shower of goodness coming to end
The doubt pouring over
Shower of goodness coming to end

[Chorus 3]
We are the earth intruders
We are the sharp shooters
Flock of parachuters
Necessary voodoo

[Bridge]
I have guided my bones through some voltage
And love them still
And love them too

[Pre-Chorus 3]
Metallic
Carnage
Furiocity
Feel the speed

[Chorus 3]
We are the earth intruders
We are the sharp shooters
Flock of parachuters
Necessary voodoo

[Verse 2]
There is turmoil out there
Carnage, rambling
What is to do but dig
Dig bones out of earth

[Pre-Chorus 4]
Mud graves
Timber
Morbid trenches

[Chorus 4]
Here come the earth intruders
There'll be no resistance
We are the canoneerers
Necessary voodoo

[Chorus 1]
We are the earth intruders
We are the earth intruders
Muddy with twigs and branches

- Björk






“Many attempted images cannot survive because they are merely formal play, not truly adapted to the matter they should adorn.”


- Bachelard, Gaston. Earth and Reveries of Will: An Essay on the Imagination of Matter, Texas: Dallas Institute of Humanities and Culture Publications, 2002.


Dennis Oppenheim, Reading Position for Second Degree Burn, 1970, 216 x 152 cm, Colour photography and collage text, IMMA Collection, 2001


The bacterium Rhodococcus ruber eats and actually digests plastic. This has been shown in laboratory experiments by PhD student Maaike Goudriaan at Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ). Based on a model study with plastic in artificial seawater in the lab, Goudriaan calculated that bacteria can break down about one percent of the fed plastic per year into CO2 and other harmless substances.  "But," Goudriaan emphasizes, "this is certainly not a solution to the problem of the plastic soup in our oceans. It is, however, another part of the answer to the question of where all the 'missing plastic' in the oceans has gone."



Ask your hands to know the things they hold ︎